What the government is doing about terrorism
By Celeste M

After the tragedy of September 11, the government has been spending large sums of money to perfect security against terrorism in the United States. This paper will be discussing what exactly the government and law enforcers are doing to prevent and detect domestic terrorism before it happens.

There are many organizations today that are investigating and teaching people about domestic terrorism today. Domestic terrorism is when a person commits terrorism in the country that they are from. One organization today that is helping to prevent terrorism is The Domestic Terrorism Program. This program helps to locate and deactivate terrorism in the U.S. They keep their eye on groups that could potentially become a terrorist group. The FBI, who are the heads of all terrorist investigations, are also working with the government and trying to investigate terrorist crime scenes. If a weapon of mass destruction is found, the FBI has a lead on a case, for the use of these highly dangerous weapons is forbidden by the government. The FBI is also assisting law enforcement officers by helping them track down terrorists to arrest. The FBI, along with a group called the Awareness of National Security Issues and Responses (ANSIR) are trying to educate small and large businesses on terrorism. They teach the people working in business how to detect a potential terrorist, or anyone who could cause harm to people, or themselves. The FBI is still researching long term terrorist attacks in hopes of finding the answer.

One example of a domestic terrorist attack in the United States, which was called one of the worst, was the Oklahoma City Bombing. Timothy McVeigh drove a car full of bombs right outside of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City and blew up the building. This act is considered domestic terrorism because McVeigh was American and he bombed an American city.

The FBI may be in charge of terrorism but they are not always the people detecting it. Recently the guard at airports has increased and it is much harder for terrorists to get through the security. These efforts are already costing the United States around 4 billion dollars just for one year. Although the U.S. is trying very hard to filter terrorists out, these efforts do not always work. James Kallstrom quotes " The terrorist in the 21st century is different than any terrorist we have ever worked with before. They're more adaptive, they're smarter; they're brighter." They plan so perfectly that sometimes it is nearly impossible to catch them before they commit the crime. Recently President Bush has made a plan for how to prevent terrorism. He first wants an expanded air marshal program, then he wants to give 5 million dollars to the improvement of airport security and screening devices, his plan also calls for National Guard Troops to assist people already working at the airport. Bush wants more government involvement in airports. After September 11 the U.S. is taking more serious safety precautions, such as cockpit doors that are much stronger so that people can't get in as easily, random screenings and searches, and possibly all airport workers will be replaced with federal employees.

The government has been coming up with different ideas that have to do with new technologies. They have even been considering using biometrics (using individuals characteristics to identify a person), such as iris scans or fingerprint scans. This way is totally safe and has already been used in different places around the world.
Many safety measures have been made by the government and it they are trying to improve it everyday. Although the safety systems are most of the time very good and very affective, they are not perfect, and sometimes things just happen that could not be prevented.

Resources
U.S. Strikes Back. http://www.cbc.ca/news/indepth/background/wtc_airlinesecurity.html

Federal Bureau of Investigation. http://www.fbi.gov

U.S. Department of Transportation. http://www.dot.gov/affairs/airportsec.htm

Security Concerns. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/military/terroristattack/security.html

War On Terrorism. http://www.azstarnet.com/attack/indepth/1120airsecurity.html

The Oklahoma City Bombing. http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/RANCHO/POLITICS/OK/ok.html


Terrorism Affecting Economics

By Anna W

The events of September 11, 2001 and other terrorist attacks, had profound effects on economies around the world. Many countries' economies suffered in the months following September 11, but none were harmed as badly as the United States'. Because the World Trade Center in New York City was the center for much of international trade and economics, the U.S. began to face many problems from the minute that the WTC was hit.

Before September 11, the United States' economy was going through a gradual slowdown that started around mid-2000. During the previous five years, the economy's strong fundamentals began to soar to remarkable rates because of the technology boom. This boom led to tremendous investments in information processing equipment and software. Because of this, equity values, or how much things are worth, began to increase. By the time mid-2000 came, businesses and firms had already invested in a lot of capital equipment and inventories, so they weren't thinking about buying anymore for a while. The equity values began to decrease again as investors began to rethink how much profit high-tech firms would make in the long run. After this large technology surge, there was a decline in business investment and manufacturing output. By the spring of 2001, the economy was recovering and it was looking like it would begin to grow soon. This positive thinking was thanks to the moderate increase in consumer spending. The United States figured out that the growth of the economy depended mainly on the confidence of consumers. By August and early September (before the attacks), it was looking like the economy would be growing steadily before too long. Then came September 11, and it all changed.

During the weeks following the attacks, the United States economy was not doing well. The attacks hit the economy's main source of support. Consumer spending plays a very important part in the success of an economy and after the September 11 attacks, consumer confidence decreased by a lot. Businesses rely on consumer spending, but many people were put out of jobs back in September. This hurt the economy as a whole because if people got paid little or no income, they would not be able to buy a lot of products and therefore, the businesses would not be getting as much money. Because the airlines failed to protect the public on 9/11 and they were closed for three days afterward, the American public's confidence in the airlines has gone way down and they have gotten less business. Inflation was another small problem in the economy following 9/11. Since the economy was in a bad state, they had to raise the prices on goods such as gasoline. Manufacturing output and business investment spending still seem to be dropping sharply, as they have been for a while. In October of 2001, private payroll employment fell by 439,000 jobs, which is the largest one-month decline in more than fifteen years. Also, the unemployment rate increased from 4.9% to 5.4%. The overall GDP contracted at about a half a percent annual rate after the attacks. Economic forecasters are saying that the United States will probably face a rise in unemployment, which will probably put a restraint on consumer confidence in the future. The good news is that the economy will eventually recover and the recovering process will probably begin sometime next year.

In conclusion, one simple act of terrorism can lead a country to economic destruction. Luckily, the United States was able to stay on its feet. Although the attacks of September 11 had an effect on economies around the world and many countries have had a lot of problems in the past few months, they will eventually recover. Almost all terrorist acts have some effect on the attacked country's economy and/or on other countries around the world. Terrorism is something that will most likely always exist. We all just need to help fight against it and help make this a better place to live in.

Resources

"Reflections on the Economy: Before and After 911"
http://www.csuchico.edu/pub/inside/archive/01_09_27/special/economy.html

"The U.S. Economy after September 11"
http://www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2001/el2001-35.html

"Europe's Contribution to Global Economic Stability"
http://www.ceps.be/2002/GrosIAC.php

"The Eurozone Economy: A Rebound Delayed"
http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/01_47/b3758617.htm#top

"US unemployment rockets"
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1634000/1634258.stm

"The Bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City"
www.interpol.int/Public/Publications/ICPR/ICPR469_3.asp

Terrorism and its effect on government
By Monifa M

"Terrorist acts are directed against persons who are individuals, agents or representatives of a cultural or political group." That is supposed to be the set definition of terrorism. However, when you think about it, there is another way to describe it. Lately in the Middle East and South Asian countries, the terrorism that has been going on has mainly been in the form of taking random hostages and killing them. You may call it Urban Guerrilla warfare, a modern form of terrorism, which attacks mostly non-Communist countries. When fighting is on the verge of becoming war, countries that are not involved usually try to stay out of it unless they know their chances of winning are good and they will benefit from it. When countries go back on their promise to the allied country, tension is caused and the trust barrier is broken completely. Trade is also affected because sometimes war can really hurt the shipment of natural resources from one country to another. For example, the after effects of September 11, 2001 made the transfer of oil harder to get because the United States got it from the Middle East. As we all know, the people that were behind the terrorist attacks were from the Middle East. We, in response to these actions, continued the killing in Afghanistan. Even though people think that we should kill the accused, it does not mean that they will feel any better. "While we once again announce our solidarity and deep sorrow with the people of the US, we also believe that attacking Afghanistan and killing its most ruined and destitute people will not in any way decrease the grief of the American people." You would think that out of all of the organizations that do not approve of war that at least one would have an effect on this whole issue. "The 911 Incident is in the process of expanding, the strong global anti-war voices from the social and popular sectors have not been able to prevent the war from breaking out."

Although September 11 was a major issue in the world, the Middle East had problems of its own way before this happened. The Balfour Declaration of Britain in 1917 expressed the government's conclusion to advance the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. The League of Nations supported this action by giving Palestine to Britain to govern. The Arabs in the area grew very upset and caused civil unrest by starting the riots of 1920 and 1921. In 1929, there were a series of murderous acts on Jews and from 1936-1939, they attacked Jewish settlements. They murdered them, mined roads, burned crops, and ambushed vehicles. There was a lot of tension between these two different cultures. This hurt their government economics because after World War 11, Britain no longer allowed Jews to come into Palestine for fear that the Arabs would make even a bigger deal. This gave Britain a bad reputation because that meant that Palestine did not accept Jew survivors out of Hitler's death camps. The PLO or the Palestine Liberation Organization was formed out of disgust towards the Jews. Now, the government was getting very serious in its attempts to drive out the Jews and an immense summit meeting for all terrorist groups was formed in Cairo in 1964. The Middle East had problems dealing with terrorism; Asia did likewise. Singapore was mostly affected by September 11, by its market coming down after the United States market did through trade. This hurt their economy since Singapore relies on trade to contain their natural resources. They depend on other countries like the United States and Mylasia because they themselves do not have any natural resources.

Resources

Terrorism questions and answers http://www.terrorismanswers.com/policy/globalization2.html

Nexus News
http://www.inter-asia.org/nexus/news.htm

East Asia "upbeat on growth"
http://asia.cnn.com/2002/BUSINESS/asia/04/06/asean.outlook/

Carlton, David and Schaerf, Carlo. Contemporary Terror Studies in Sub-State Violence ©1981

Sobel, Lester A. Political Terrorism ©1975


Terrorism & History

By Sarah N

Terrorism is a terrible act of violence that exists everywhere around the world. Terrorism started in ancient times and, as the years progressed, has only gotten worse. There are many different terrorist organizations that use numerous methods and motivations to destroy their enemies. Many terrorist acts are brought about due to issues pertaining to racial discrimination, territory ownership, or gaining revenge on other regions or countries that have disabled their country from receiving their personal liberties. Many countries struggle to fight terrorism, and the men and women that plot these unlawful plans of destruction.

Colombia, located in South America, has fought for many years to overcome its terrorism problems. The State Department's Coordinator for Counter-terrorism has formed a list of terrorist groups every two years known as, the Foreign Terrorist Organization or the FTO. This list is fairly extensive, at 29 members, and the United Self- Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC), the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN) are three very dangerous terrorist groups that have been added to the FTO. These three vicious groups are involved in Colombia's enduring civil war. They use guerilla war fighting tactics and are recognized for being involved with terrorist activities such as, murders, kidnappings, and bombings. Many people believe that the terrible trio is also related to the drug trade in Colombia. Cocaine, uprooted in the coca fields in Colombia, is a very profitable cash crop in Colombia. The illegal exportation of this drug to the United States has caused many problems with the United States government and Colombia. The United States government officials believe that the terrorist groups in Colombia are the villains who are in control of the illegal exportation of the cocaine, and are using the money they receive from the exportation to buy dangerous weapons for their terrorist actions. The United States is one of the few countries to aid Colombia in fighting the terrorism and drug issues occurring in their country. The United States has formed many crucial plans to help rid terrorism in Colombia such as, "Plan Colombia". Colombia is the third largest receiver of the United States military aid. "Plan Colombia" proposes the plan of supplying weapons to Colombian police and other military forces. To help the drug war in Colombia the United States is going to support the spraying of the coca fields in Colombia. By spraying the coca fields this might stop the growth of the cocaine but it could negatively affect the growth of other important crops, kill livestock, and pollute the air for humans. Although the United States plans to eliminate the terrorism and drug issues in Colombia, improvements have been minimal due to the fact that many people are concerned that the United States will have to militarily intervene and fight in up coming wars that arise. In conclusion to this topic of recent terrorism in Colombia, 44% of the 500 incidents of terrorism that occur are in Colombia. The malicious terrorist groups have many different motivations and methods that they utilize. However, all of these Colombian terrorist groups are alike, in the sense that they all want to bring down and destroy whatever stands in there way of personal independence and freedom.

Northern Ireland, located in Western Europe, has had terrorism problems for a long period of time. The division of the Irish republic government causes the most confusion, and the start of many terrorist activities. In Northern Ireland there are two renowned terrorist groups that have caused much destruction and many lives to be lost in this country. The first dangerous group is the Irish Republican Army also known as the IRA. This group is a radical terrorist group, which was formed in 1969. The main reason for the commencement of this group was to remove British forces from Northern Ireland in a desperate attempt to unify Northern Ireland. This terrorist group, unlike many others, has many supporters for their cause. They have more than one hundred fighters, and thousands of supporters who are all a part of the Irish Catholic population. The leader of the IRA is Sinn Fein, and is arranged into many different groups, which are led by the council. Like Colombia, the IRA receives financial support and aid from the United States. Northern Ireland also gained support for Libya and the PLO who have supplied them with weapons and training for their fighting purposes. Like most terrorist groups, the IRA uses bombings, assassinations, kidnappings and robberies to attack their rivals. The most recent and destructive terrorist attack brought about by the IRA was in February of 1996. In February of 1996 the IRA began firing upon the British Government officials positioned in Northern Ireland, British military and police who were stationed in Northern Ireland, and the Northern Irish Loyalist paramilitary groups, all of who the IRA had been targeting since 1994. The terrible 1996 attacks included violence pertaining to the bombing of campaigns that were rebelling against the formation of train, subway stations, and shopping areas in the mainland of Britain. The IRA felt that the formation of these places would help to reconstruct and unify Northern Ireland. This concludes the background information on the IRA terrorist formed in Northern Ireland. The second malicious terrorist group is the Real IRA. The Real IRA is made up of people who disagreed with the decisions made by the IRA and decided to break away and form their own group of people who shared their same beliefs. The Real IRA is allied with the union of Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic, led by the British. Their motive for being allied with these groups is because they want to disrupt the peace process, which was formed by the IRA. The disruption of the peace process could possibly lead to the British's removal from North Ireland. Many people infer that the Real IRA is a military division of the 32 County Sovereignty Committee, which is led by Bernadette McKevitt, who works as the vice president of the Real IRA. The main motivation for all of the turmoil caused by the Real IRA is to gain independence in 26 countries in the Irish Republic and the six countries located in Northern Ireland. Most recently the Real IRA has been associated with numerous bombings, all of which were situations where car bombs were ignited. Many British authorities believe that the Real IRA is accountable for the 500-lb. car bombing attack in Bangridge in August of 1997. This terrorist group notorious for being very dangerous because of their access to large amounts of Semtex plastic explosive, detonators, and many other mechanisms used to construct bombs. In conclusion to this topic of recent terrorism in Northern Ireland, terrorism is one of the main factors that leads to the killing of many innocent people in this country. Although the IRA and Real IRA have different methods, both groups have been working to gain independence in Northern Ireland.

In conclusion, terrorism is proven to be the main cause of violence in many different countries all over the world. Despite all of the confusion, many people are working to eliminate terrorism everywhere in the world. I presume that this peace process will be a life long goal to achieve. But, when the peace mission is accomplished many countries will be unified and can have the strength to modernize or better their living situations. I believe that wiping out terrorism worldwide will be a struggle, but if accomplished, will make our world a better place to be live in, and allow people to have pride in their country.

Resources:

Irish Republican Army (IRA). May 5th, 2002. <http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=34>.

Irish Republican Army (IRA) Attacks. May 12th, 2002. <http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgattack.cfm?orgid=34>.

Plan Colombia Pulls US Deeper Into Conflict. May 5th, 2002. <http://www.csdp.org/news/news/colombia.htm>.

Real IRA. May 12th, 2002. <http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=34>.

Real IRA Attacks. May 12th, 2002.<http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgattack.cfm?orgid=34>.

Leech, Garry M. Targeting Colombia's "Evil-doers". May 4th, 2002. <http://www.colombiareport.org/colombian87.htm>.

Terrorism In Colombia: Different But Real. May 5th 2002.<http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/colombia.cfm>.

 

Terrorism through time

By Cally M.

For centuries, countries all over the world have been experiencing terrorism in one way or another. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion. (Franklin (c) dictionary) It is most commonly described with individuals or groups trying to overthrow political institutions. It is also used in result of anti-colonial conflicts, between different national groups for land, conflicts between racial or religious groups or denominations, or different governments; however, this is only naming a few. Even though the reasons for terrorism are the same today as they were even centuries ago, the modern terrorism differs greatly from terrorism in our past. The victims are frequently innocent civilians who are picked at random or who merely happen into terrorist situations(Terrorism Files.org). Two countries that experience terrorism are Colombia and Northern Ireland. Colombia is located in the northern part of South America. While Northern Ireland, obviously, is located in the northern part of Ireland in Europe. In the past- and today- both of these countries have experienced other conflicts that contribute to their terrorist problems. Colombia, even now, has a very serious drug problem. While in Ireland, there were conflicts in the church between two denominations, Catholics and Protestants. This paper, although, will discuss the roots of terrorism in these two, very different, countries.

Among people of some Irish decent, there still remains the belief that the Irish terrorists are "freedom fighters". Since 400 AD Irish nationalism has been growing. Through the two opposing groups, Catholic and Protestant, troubles have ranged from minor disagreements to unbelievable acts of violence. (Roy The Roots of Terrorism in Northern Ireland) There are many reasons that contribute to the historical background to violence in Ireland. Some include the wake of the Roman Empire, time after the Dark Ages, Ireland being an issue in English defense policy, the Protestant Ascendancy, Irish nationalism, and British oppression. The Catholics were Republicans, wanting for Ireland to be united. The Protestants were Loyalists, who wanted to keep Northern Ireland independent from Dublin. From 1919, the IRB (now known as the IRA) fought a guerrilla war against the British army. This was in effort to force a withdrawal from Ireland. The terrorist activities since 1969 is known as the "present troubles" used to describe these acts along with civil disorder. The army was given orders again to give aid to the police. Most of the rioting came from the Catholics. The police found it very difficult to control these riots because Royal Ulster Constabulary often faced the Catholics and this caused the RUC to lose credit as an impartial police force. (Roy The Roots of Terrorism in Northern Ireland) As these riots and acts died down, the police force did not have the strength or men to handle these serious situations. In 1969, the army was called in to provide military aid to the Civil Power because of all the riots, etc. The Protestants then acted even more violent than the Catholic Civil Rights campaigners. Because of this, the army was given orders to protect the Catholics from Protestant attacks. The RUC disarmed them selves and the illegal Protestant paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force rejuvenated. The army now found itself in the middle, but dealing with less riots and serious acts and more with the bombs and guns of Catholic and Protestant extremists. By making use of this situation, Catholic terrorists were able to take control of their communities. (Roy The Roots of Terrorism in Northern Ireland) In their communities, the terrorists offered their people "protection" from the Protestants and took their authority by torturing people. This wretched form of community terrorism called "kneecapping" has been an emblem to the IRA for over twenty years. These acts today are common punishments for non-conformists in the Republican areas(Roy The Roots of Terrorism in Northern Ireland). In Northern Ireland, the terrorists are Catholic against Protestant, showing years and years of hatred and doubt, which gets them their needed support from their own sides. Because of this anguish, there is extreme religious separation between these two denominations. Business, factories and recreation clubs are segregated. Children as well are separated because the government still makes schools that are strictly for Roman Catholic pupils. The years of hatred and bigotry between these two groups are clearly shown through history.

Throughout history, the people of Colombia have generally experienced and lived with terror. Even from the beginning with the conquistadors, and afro-Colombians who were brought here as slaves. Even at the end of the Cold War, Marxism was still trying to take over Colombia. But a more main issue in Colombia, even today, is the drug use. Colombian guerillas have become the richest criminal organizations in the world(Posada Terrorism in Colombia). Terrorism, however, is still an issue. Infrequently, army units have been attacked by guerilla organizations. Only have they had success was when they attacked against Army posts or units in the field. Now, their terrorist activity is mostly against civilians. The groups attack small villages. They place landmines on roads and paths that kill many. They also kidnap more than 3000 Colombians and foreigners each year. Children are recruited to fill their positions and rape and beat many young girl inductees. These terrorists also control the refinement of coca leaves and process a large portion of drugs and created export routes. Help against Marxist terrorists is the best episode aid that more fortunate, advanced countries could give Colombia. (Posada Terrorism in Colombia) Proscribing legal defense organizations in rural areas was one of the major mistakes made in Colombia's history. Many governments around the world suggest that the government should use force and obtain weapons. The drug trade in Colombia greatly contributes to the violence and corruption in the society. The situations now in Colombia are in results of Colombia's history. Political, economical, social, and even religious powers affect what is going on now.

Colombia and Northern Ireland both have something in common, for the better. Colombia and Northern Ireland are getting help from other countries. The U.S. is currently helping Colombia with their fight against subversion, or Marxism. After the Cold War, Marxism held on to power in Cuba and hope to gain power in Colombia, as well. All of these other countries are helping each other fight terrorism. That is one thing many people do not understand; that terrorism is a global situation. We are not fighting countries, but certain groups and certain religions against each other, like Northern Ireland with the Catholics against Protestants. The terrorism situations in Colombia were in mainly political views. Marxism and guerillas fighting Colombia to gain power and control, not to diminish any kind of religious group or kind of people, who in some circumstances are common terrorism factors. Terrorism, in most cases, does not just happen for it happening; it, however, has a reason behind it. The religious groups and conflicts between the Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland add up to terrorism and violence. And the geography circumstances and drug rings in Colombia are some main affects of terrorism. Basically the same reasons for terrorism that history preserves for us today.

Resources:

"Terrorism in the 20th Century". (c) Terrorism Files.org. 5/15/02 . http://www.terrorismfiles.org/encyclopedia/terrorism_20th_century.html

Podur, Justin. "History, War, and Alternatives: an Interview with 'Roberto, Campesino Leader from Colombia". (c) The Campesino. 5/17/02. http://www.tao.ca/~ccsc/roberint.htm

Posada, Miguel. "E-Notes--Terrorism in Colombia". (c) Foreign Policy Research Institute. 5/14/02. http://www.fpri.org/enotes/latin.20020121.posada.terrorismincolombia.html

Roy, Major Alexander C.. "The Roots of Terrorism in Northern Ireland". (c) Global Security. 5/15/02. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1991/RAC.htm

Garcia, Victoria & Stohl, Rachel. "TERRORISM IN COLOMBIA: Different, but Real". (c) CDI. 5/14/02. http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/colombia.cfm




Culture can equal Conflict: yes or no?

By Alyia S

For a long time, there has been a ferocious struggle in the Middle East between two neighboring entities, Palestine and Irasel. The problem is not based only on religion but land, and some of the reasons for this land are based on religious values. Now the conflict has gotten out of hand and the peoples' fight is constantly getting worse. Many innocent people are dying including children. Basically there is a big mess.

The problem in the Middle East started long ago. The conflict between the Jews and the Palestinians has been happening since the beginning of the 20th century. Basically the fight is over land not over there religion even though that is part of the problem. The Jewish people of Israel believe that the land is rightfully theirs because a promise of the bible from Abraham to the people of that site where the Jewish Kingdom of Israel once stood. On the other hand the Palestinians Arabs believe that the land is theirs because they had been on the land longer than the Jews, and represent demographic majority. They reject the Jews claim for the land because they do not believe that a biblical kingdom from the past is a basis for a modern one. Also Abraham's son was the forefather of the Arabs and Gods promise of land to the people belongs to them just as much as the Jews. The Palestinian Arabs do not believe they should give up the land in order to pay the Jews for the crimes of Europe that were placed against them.

Right now each side is taking serious action to get the land that they each believe is rightfully theirs. For example the Jews have invaded territory which was defined as Palestinian with no real right. The have also made continuous efforts to decide on who will lead the people of Palestine even though they have elected their own leader. The Palestinians have several different groups inside their culture and these groups have divided the Palestinians government but committing terrorist acts against the Jews. There have committed suicide bombings in places in Israel such as cafes, busses, and restaurants. There have been many efforts to stop these horrible acts. For example America is getting involved, Colin Powell the Secretary of State, went to the Middle East to meet with Israel and Palestinian leaders to try an determine a way to end the problem. Also groups from both sides have met to see if they can listen to each other and work together to solve the problems. Although some left in the middle of the meeting most stayed to help discuss an end. Together they have raised money, wrote letters to Middle East leaders about the peace process asking for them to sign their names in agreement of their cooperation, and hosted dinners and get together for each side to get to know each other.
Jewish people have their beliefs within their culture and so do the Palestinian people. Because of what Jews follow they believe the land is theirs from a promise made to them by their Lord. On the other side the Palestinian beliefs tie in with them because the same promises belong to them because the same prophet is Arab. The two sides' culture causes conflict in other areas. This conflict has lead up to terrorist acts, which is a major problem.

Resources:
Palestine, Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, A Primer
http://www.merip.org/palestine-israel_primer/pal-refugee-citizen-pal-is.html

Palestine, Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, A Primer
http://www.merip.org/palestine-israel_primer/intro-pal-isr-primer.html

Palestinian-Israeli conflict: a noisy presence at NGO Forum
http://www.wcc-coe.org/wcc/news/press/01/wcar02feat-e.html

Jews and Palestinians Cooperate for Peace
http://www.igc.org/traubman/dg-tlart.htm

 

Terrorism & Culture

By Kate W

Terrorism is affecting many people all around the world. There are different kinds of terrorism, each with different origins. Acts of terrorism are acts hate because of one countries or groups differences. Some because of different cultures or religions. In Northern Ireland, terrorism has been going on for a long time, dating back at least to the 12th century. These acts have many different reasons backing them, one of which is religion. Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland have been quarreling for centuries now. The two religions are so much a like it's a wonder why they are feuding.

Protestantism is actually a branch off of Catholicism. Protestants and Catholics have the same background of beliefs, but they practice their beliefs in completely separate ways. Unlike Catholics, Protestants do not have to sacrifice things on religious holidays. They do not have an altar where they pray on, nor do they have priests; instead they have pastors who are priests without the vows. They do not believe that only certain people who have taken specific vows can be priests. They believe that anyone who wishes to practice his/her religion can become a pastor as long and they believe in Jesus. The Pope has no authority over Protestants. They do not follow the Bible. They follow their own interpretations of the bible. Although there all these few distinctions, Protestants basically follow the same kinds of guidelines as Catholics do.

The Catholic religion is more strict. It has more set rules and beliefs that must be followed. Catholics do have priests that can only be men and have to have taken vows. They follow the Bible and do have to make certain sacrifices on certain days or times of the year. Catholics are taught to abide by two certain prayers, the "Our Father" prayer and the Apostles' Creed. The Catholics believe that these prayers summarize the meaning of how life should be. The Apostles' Creed states what the Catholics belief in almost as a rulebook. The "Our Father" prayer tells Catholics about their history and also about what they should believe in. Catholics follow the Holy Scriptures, which are writings that were passed down from the twelve disciples. Catholics also believe in practicing their religion once a week at the least. This means that it is a requirement for Catholics to go to church at least once a week. Catholics follow a much more accurate religion. They have many more set rules than Protestants do.

The war in Northern Ireland has been going on for several centuries. It all started in the 12th century when England tried to get involved in the Irish affairs. The English were Protestants, which causes them to settle with Northern Ireland; this is where the Protestants lived. The English fought alongside Northern Ireland for many years. They fought against Southern Ireland, or the Catholics. In 1919, Northern Ireland established its own government and branched farther away from Southern Ireland. In 1921, Northern Ireland's first parliament opened and in 1949 the British gave new constitutional guarantees to this parliament. In 1948, Southern Ireland's I.R.A (Irish Republican Army) began terrorist attacks on Northern Ireland to try and get them to re-unite. In 1952, the I.R.A calls for more attacks on Northern Ireland police stations. In 1968 a civil rights movement is begun. Southern Ireland is trying to get votes for equal housing for the poor Catholics. The Protestants decline this movement. But later in 1970, the Social Democratic and Labour Party helps to press for the Catholics civil rights. In 1972, thirteen Catholic protestors were shot in Northern Ireland for petitioning for their own rights. This date was called Bloody Sunday. The fights have been continuing on and off. Many times, Northern and Southern Ireland have tried to re-unite but it has never been successful. Currently, they are doing better. Starting in 1998 there has been less conflict. They have started to realize that as long as they leave the others alone, there is no need to cause conflict.

Northern and Southern Ireland were split even before the 12th century by religions. They wanted to keep the separate religions apart because they believed in different things. Terrorism most often occurs when two different groups (sometimes religious groups) have different beliefs that they find important enough to fight over. In the case of the terrorism in Ireland, the separate religions were not excepted for the different ways that they practiced. They were divided into two independent places even though their beliefs are almost exactly the same. The people of Ireland's religion are what caused all the hostility. And Ireland is not the only place where religion and culture is a key element behind Terrorism. It happens all around the world. It is amazing how such a tedious thing could cause so many lives to be lost.

Resources:

Protestants: http://religion-cults.com/Christianity/Protestant/Branch-C-Protestant.htm#PRINCIPLES"%20OF%20PROTESTANTISM

Just for Catholics: http://www.justforcatholics.org/faith.htm

Significant Terrorist Issues: http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/terror_chron.html

Key Events in Northern Ireland History: http://news6.thdo.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/special_report/1998/northern_ireland.htm

Morris, Richard B, Graham, Irwin W. Harper Encyclopedia of the Modern World. 1967.


Terrorism Issues in the United States: September 11th and US policy on Terrorism

By Carolina V.

Terrorism in the United States has reached a high point in the past 20 years. Bombs, crashes, and murders are all acts of terrorism that have happened in the United States. September 11th, 2001, was the most recent terrorist attack in United States. This is an examination of that attack, along with the US policy on terrorism.

On Tuesday September 11th 2001, 19 terrorists hijacked four commercial airplanes. They crashed two of the planes into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, one into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and the fourth plane crashed in Somerset, Pennsylvania. Thousands of lives--including emergency workers, airline passengers and crew, and employees of the Pentagon and World Trade towers--were lost. Osama bin Laden, leader of the Afghanistan-based international terrorist network al Qaeda, is believed to have been responsible for the attacks.

There are not enough words to describe the pain that millions of Americans are still feeling, after the act of war on America. Many people died trying to save others, they are the heroes of the day, those who lived we treasure. America fund-raised so much money for the aftermath of the attacks, that some victims of other terrorist attacks were jealous of all the attention given to this attack, whereas not as much attention was given to theirs.

When President Bush spoke to the American people after the terrorist attacks he said: "The pictures of airplanes flying into buildings, fires burning, huge structures collapsing, have filled us with disbelief, terrible sadness, and a quiet, unyielding anger. These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat. But they have failed; our country is strong." The terrorist attack on 9/11 was an act of war against the US. Nine days after the September 11 terrorist attacks, President Bush outlined a plan to bring the terrorists responsible for the September 11 attack to justice, and to honor the heroes who fought for others. Bush called for a campaign against both terrorists and the nations that support or "harbor" them.

After many warnings to the Taliban, the extremist group that controlled Afghanistan, many nations with United States began a bombing campaign. The Taliban were believed to be hiding Osama bin Laden, the suspected leader of the attacks on September 11. Since the attacks, the US had ordered that the Taliban hand over leaders of the al Qaeda (terrorist network), but the Taliban refused to give in, by saying that they had no knowledge of the al Qaeda leadership. The Bush administration made an alliance of 40 nations that include Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Russia. By the end of 2001 most of the Taliban fighters had surrendered to an alliance of American Special Forces troops and Afghani resistance fighters.

The United States and allies around the world have rounded up individual terrorists, such as Abu Zubaydah, a top al Qaeda leader captured in Pakistan. Cells around the world from Spain to Singapore are being broken up and their plans are being thrown away. Over 1,600 terrorists and their supporters have been arrested in more than ninety-five countries. Terrorists assets in over twenty countries have been frozen, and more is being done every day to try and prevent another day of infamy.

"The authorities granted to the President by section 1702may only be exercised to deal with an unusual and extraordinary threat with respect to which a national emergency has been declared for purposes of this chapter and may not be exercised for any other purpose."

The quote above is stated clearly in International Emergency Economic Powers Act ("IEEPA"). This means that the President is allowed to do as he sees fit in the event of "unusual" circumstances. In the attack of September 11th it must be considered as an "extraordinary" happening. The secretary of state is allowed to intervene if:

"(A) the organization is a foreign organization;
(B) the organization engages in terrorist activity and
(C) the terrorist activity of the organization threatens the security of United States" In case of a terrorism emergency the code of law, is well stated in who is in charge of what, the only problem is however, that you can read a book, but it is much more difficult to actually do the action. For example, after the 9/11 attacks there was some confusion as to who was to take over different responsibilities, they knew what they were supposed to do, but to follow through with it was much more difficult. Terrorism Policies in the United States are well written and available to all, however terrorist attacks are complex events, feeling of certainty.

 

Other Terrorist acts on America

By Lizzie G.

Terrorism, according to the encyclopedia, is the threat or use of violence, often against the civilian population, to achieve political or social ends, to intimidate opponents, or to publicize grievances. Terrorism is acts are usually is the form of: hijackings, random killings, assassinations, and bombings, for political and not military purposes. Over the last 25 years, there have been several terrorist attacks in the United States, killing thousands of innocent Americans. Because of these attacks, America is now involved in a war against terrorism.

On April 19, 1995, at 9:02 am, the Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City was bombed. The bomb was inside a rental truck and blew up half of the nine-story building full of workers and children that had been dropped off just minutes before for the daycare program. It took workers two weeks to pull all of the bodies of the women, men, and children from the building. Once all the work was done and all of the bodies were removed, 169 people were dead and 500 were injured, in what was the worst terrorist attack America had seen so far. It only took the Oklahoma Highway Patrol 90 minutes from the time of the explosion to pull over Timothy McVeigh, 27 years old, who was driving without a license plate. On April 21, he was set to be released when, he was recognized as a suspect for the bombing and was charged with it as well. Timothy's former Army friend, Terry Nicholas, found out that he was wanted for questioning so, voluntarily surrendered to the police in Herington, Kansas, and later was charged with the bombing of the Murrah Building. If McVeigh and Nicholas are charged with the bombing, they could be sentenced to the death penalty is they are convicted of terrorism, murder, and conspiracy charges. They were both found guilty and McVeigh was executed. Nichols, however, was sentenced to life in jail without parole.

On February 26, 1993, everything seemed to be going normally. Around 12:18 p.m., the Manhattan Central Office received a phone call from a street alarm box at the corner of West and Liberty Street. At the exact same time, Engine Company Ten, whose station is across from the World Trade Centers, called them too in order to report what they thought could be an explosion in the transformer vault (also known as a manhole) of West Street near the World Trade Centers. Since these explosions happened quite often, no one thought that this one would be any different. A little after the first call, Engine 10 called the Manhattan Central Office and reported that there was a working fire in the Trade Centers. This didn't alarm them too much because, even though they thought that the transformer vault was in the basement of the Trade Center and this wasn't exactly a normal call, it was just a transformer vault. Normally, when something like this happens, they get a lot of calls, but they stop as soon as the help arrives. This time, however, the calls were still coming and they were reporting things like smoke up as far as the 33rd floor and the ceiling collapsing in the train station that was on the B4 (4th level below ground) level of the building. This was when they crew knew that it was more than just a vault explosion. The Manhattan Central Office, which has four positions used to answer fire phones, each with eighteen incoming phone lines, had phone calls coming in constantly for the next six hours. These calls were from people who were stranded inside the building asking for help on how to get out. The calls were being taken in from both of the World Trade Tower's, as well as the Vista Hotel.

The blast was on level B2 and it was so strong that it caused the steel reinforced concrete floor below (B3) to collapse, which caused more collapses in return. Because of all this, there was debris piled onto level B6 and the steel fire door that opens to the B2 floor from the stairway that is above B1 was blown off of it's hinges and implanted into a wall that was 35 feet away. If this wasn't bad enough, the blast just happened to be at the one single place that it could do the most damage. It was positioned at the one place where it could knock out the power plant for the entire complex. This caused the fifty thousand people in the Twin Towers to be trapped with no lights, elevators, heat, and a ton of soot filled smoke. Not only did it knock out all of these things, but also since most of the NYC television stations have their transmitters on top of Twin Tower 1, only Channel 2, WCBS, was left on the air. People trapped inside were able to listen to the radio for information and, where there was a television, they were watching Channel 2. On the radio, newscasters told the people trapped inside the towers that if they were finding it difficult to breathe with all of the smoke that they should break out the glass windows. This was probably one of the worst things they could do because, when they broke out the windows from so high up, there was a chance that the glass, some falling from over fifty stories high, could easily hit and kill one of the over five hundred emergency personnel working on the ground. By 5 p.m., the calls had slowed down and most of them were either from worried family members of the people trapped in the towers or from people looking for medical aid, or an estimated rescue time. Given the fact that there were 110 floor and 99 elevators in each tower to search, they couldn't tell how long it was going to take to search everywhere. At exactly 11:25 in the evening, they rescue workers located the last of the elevator, and the occupants were removed after being stuck in the elevator for close to twelve hours. The bombing was finally declared under control at 2:25 in the morning on Saturday February 27th. In the end, six people were killed, over 1,000 were injure, 105 firefighters were injured and five were taken into the hospital. 124 parked cars were destroyed and 102 were damaged. The cost of restoration was $250,000,000 and tenants began moving back into Twin Tower 2 on March 18th, 1993 and Tower 1 on March 29th.

27-year-old West Bank Palestinian, Ahmad Ajaj was taken into custody for scheming to bomb the World Trade Center. They thought that he could be a Mossad (Israel's CIA) mole. Though he was in jail on February 26, 1993, the day the World Trade Center was bombed, for entering the United States with a fake passport, he was later charged for the bombing.
On November 4, 1997, the U.S. Embassy in Tehran was ambushed by over 3,000 militants and 52 members of the staff were captured and taken hostage. These hostages were held in the Embassy until January 20th, 1981, when they were released after 444 days in captivity. A dozen student leaders who planned and directed the hostage taking also arranged this ambush. One of the students was Abbas Abdi. He was the leader of the Organization of Islamic Students and Tehran Polytechnic University. Abdi met with over 130 students the day of the ambush and explained the takeover plans, gave out assignments and ID badges and told the students to go over to the embassy so that they could meet up with the students that had been recruited from other universities. The hostages were sat in seats with their hands tied down most of the day except for the times when they were eating or had to go to the restroom. They were not permitted to speak to the other hostages either. America has still not forgiven Iran and the people who took the hostages and though some of the hostages have forgiven the ones who took them hostage, we are still sore with them.

Terrorism is a terrible thing and it should be stopped. Because of the attacks on the: World Trade Centers, The Murrah Building, and the United States Embassy in Tehran, many people have lost their lives and loved ones for no reason at all. These terrorist attacks on the United States were uncalled for, and consequentially killed and injured many innocent civilians just trying to do their job. It is because of attacks like the bombing of the Murrah Building and World Trade Centers that America is now in the war against terrorism.

Resources:

Drugs and Terror
http://www.theantidrug.com/drugs_terror/quiz.html#

Diplomatic Actions
http://www.whitehouse.gov/response/diplomaticresponse.html

America's Response to Terrorism
http://www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/fp/projects/terrorism/law.htm#un/

The Day the World Shook
http://members.aol.com/fd347/wtc.htm

Mossad Link to First WTC Bombing Raises Eyebrows
http://www.americanfreepress.net/09_16_01/Mossad_Link_to_First_WTC_Bombi/mossad_link_to_first_wtc_bombi.html

The Oklahoma Bombing Investigation Committee
http://www.okcbombing.org/

Oklahoma City Tragedy- Bombing
http://www.cnn.com/US/OKC/bombing.html

Super 70's.com Iran Hostage Crisis
http://www.super70s.com/Super70s/News/1979/November/4-Iranian_Hostage_Crisis.asp

Time: Can Iran Be Forgiven
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/1998/dom/980803/world.can_iran_be_forgiv10.html

 



International Terrorism in Italy

By Morgan G.

International terrorism anywhere is a significant problem. In Italy this problem is quite severe. For many years, the government has been trying to figure out ways to resolve this conflict; however, no actions have prevented this conflict from lingering. This essay will go in detail with a particular international terrorist group who has been attacking Italy for years. This essay will also explain how this and other international terrorist groups affect Italy and the ways Italy is trying to prevent terrorism.

One of Italy's largest international terrorist organizations was called the Red Brigade. The Red Brigade was a Marxist-Leninist group whose goal was to separate Italy from the rest of the Western Alliance. The Red Brigade started out in the late 1960s and was a student movement. In 1984, the terrorist group divided itself into two organizations. These organizations were called Communist Combatant Party and the Union of Combatant Communists. The group mostly targets Unionists, politicians, and businessmen. In the group's later period, it supported Italy's pullout from NATO. The problem with terrorism internationally increased in 1978 when the president of the ruling Christian Democrats who was also a very influential, important politician named Aldo Moro was kidnapped by the Red Brigades. He was later murdered. This event brought a lot of awareness of terrorism in Italy and people were more cautious but that didn't stop terrorist groups from attacking. Another big terrorist action the Red Brigade was involved with was the kidnapping of General James Dozier, who was an American who had a high position with NATO in Italy in 1981. Though the group went through ups and downs with their actions, they've seemed to be one of the most powerful international terrorist groups in Italy out of the many.

The Red Brigade was one example of the many different terrorist organizations in Italy. The government has tried taking action by taking less risks. An example of how the government did this was how they closed down the American Embassy in Rome because there was not enough security. Many believed another reason for them to close down the embassy was because they were scared there would be a terrorist group who would attack the embassy. The government has also got a lot of security who keeps their eye out for any possible suspects of terrorist groups. An example of this is in 1982, over 900 militants were arrested because they were thought of as having a high possibility of being terrorists. Many other actions just like these have been taking place for years in Italy. In a review of immigration and terrorism in Italy, the Chicago Tribune suggested that, "Italian police... get high marks for gathering intelligence, cracking the cells and arresting suspects. But the Italian court system tends to treat antiterrorism cases the same way it treats the problem of illegal immigration: ignoring it in hope that it becomes somebody else's problem." This simply means that many people feel the court system ignores terrorism cases and this causes a lot of controversy. In a recent, international terrorist attack in Italy, an Italian economist was killed because he wanted to reform work. Many terrorist attacks are very similar to this one, and have the same motives as this one in Italy, and unfortunately, these attacks are not rare. Italy's borders have been linked by some to the threat of terrorism and suspicion that Italy provides shelter for terrorists. This also causes a lot of controversy. In further detail, there are many different reasons, theories, and background information behind international terrorism in Italy. Although there is a lot of controversy, the Italian government hopes to put those behind them and provide a safe environment in Italy, free of international terrorism.

All in all, many people domestically, or internationally can see that international terrorism in Italy is a big problem. Due to the Red Brigades, and other terrorist groups strong opinions about Italian beliefs, and culture, there seems to be no direct way of stopping powerful groups like these. The government is working very efficiently to figure out straightforward ways to stop these actions. In conclusion, international terrorism in Italy is dangerous and something must and will be done hopefully in the near future.

Resources:

Genoa.http://216.239.39.100/search?q=cache:RCawEjchAckC:www.swp.org.uk/RESOURCE/genoa.pdf+%22history+of+terrorism+in+Italy%22&hl=en&ie=UTF8

Red Brigades. http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=36

Obscure Years: Terrorism in Italy. http://oikos.org/terforum/

SECURITY ANALYSIS: THE RETURN OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM IN ITALY. http://www.analisidifesa.it/numero10/eng/territaeng.htm


Domestic terrorism in Italy

By Anna S.

Terrorism is, according to encyclopedia.com, a threat or use of violence, often against the civilian population, to achieve political or social ends, to intimidate opponents, or to publicize grievance. Italy has had its share of terrorism, especially domestic, in the past half-century.

Italy in the past half-century has been characterized political unrest, and as a result of this, there are many groups with political ideologies on the far right or left of the political spectrum. These groups have turned to terrorist acts to bring attention to their beliefs and to try and achieve their ultimate goal. For, example there is the Brigatte Rosa (Red Brigades) group. This is and extreme leftist group, with a Marxist-Leninist ideology. The aim of the group was to separate Italy from the Western Alliance, and in later years, to get Italy to withdraw from NATO. This group was formed in the late 1960s-early 1970s (two dates given are 1969 and 1973), and it sprung out of the student protest movements of the late 1960s. Their peak period of attacks was between 1970s-early 1980s, and during this time their terrorist acts killed hundreds of people. They approved the use of violence in service of revolution, and most of their attacks targeted unionists, politicians, businessmen ("the establishment"). During this time they were a relatively large group, when compared to some of the others in Italy. In 1978 it had 400-500 full time paid members, and close to 1,000 part time members (brigatisti) who led respectable lives in the Italian Society, but sympathized with and helped the Red Brigades. The mid-1980s and onward was a time of decline from the Red Brigades, and the group began to fall apart for several reasons, one of which was that a large amount of the group's leaders were arrested. Then, in 1984, the group split into 2 different organizations: the Communist Combatant Party (BR-PCC) and the Union of Combatant Communists (BR-UCC). The group remained relatively dormant between 1988 and 1998, but in recent years there has been an increase in their domestic terrorist acts. Another domestic terrorist group in Italy is an Anti-imperialist Territorial Nuclei. They are an anarchist group, on the far left of the political spectrum. They have an anti-US and an anti-NATO viewpoint. It was formed in 1995, and it is believed to be allied with former Red Brigades members. Some of its more recent attacks include placing a bomb at the Milan office of the Italian Confederation of Free Trade Unions in July 2000, and the bombing of the Venice Courthouse in August 2001. There are several far right terrorist groups in Italy, like the Ordine Nuovo (New Order) and the Fronte Nazionale (National Front). The New Order is a neo-fascist group, which was responsible for the 1969 bombing of the Piazza Fontana bank in Milan. The National Front was also a neo-fascist group, which was dissolved in 2000 during the crackdown by the Italian government on far right terrorist organizations.

In the past half-century, there have been many different terrorist attacks in Italy, which were executed by domestic terrorists. These attacks range in type from kidnappings and killings to bombings. One of the earliest large attacks in the past half-century was the Piazza Fontana Bombing. This was when, on December 12, 1969, members of the New Order terrorist group bombed the Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura in Milan's Piazza Fontanza. 16 people died and 84 were injured in the blast. Another famous terrorist act was the kidnapping and killing of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro, in 1979. He was abducted by members of the Red Brigades, and kept hostage for 2 months, until he was killed and his body was dumped in Rome. A few years after this, in 1981, there was another kidnapping, also executed by the Red Brigades. This abduction was of General James Dozier, who held a position with NATO in Italy. He was later freed during a government raid on a Red Brigades stronghold in northern Italy. This kidnapping led to the government taking big actions against the Red Brigades. During this crackdown, most of the group's leaders were arrested, and they provided information on other members which led to those people's arrests, so by the end of this campaign against the Red Brigades, the group was believed to have no more than 50 actual members. In 1993, there was an attack on US airbase in Aviano, but there were no casualties. The Red Brigades committed this particular attack on the airbase, but there was another attack on the same airbase, in 1999, and this time it was by the Anti-imperialist Territorial Nuclei. There was another attack on NATO holdings two years later. On January 10, 1995, a bomb exploded in front of the NATO Defense College. There were no casualties in this attack, which was claimed by the Red Brigades. Then in 1999 there was another important terrorist act. On May 20, 1999 in Rome Massimo D'Antona was shot by two members of the Red Brigades, and then died on the way to the hospital. Massimo D'Antona was a senior advisor in the Italian government, and the assassination was politically motivated, probably because of his work on labor reforms. One of the most recent terrorist attacks was the shooting of government advisor Marco Biagi. This happened in Bologna, on March 19, 2002. Two men outside his apartment building shot Biagi, and he died en route to the hospital. Biagi was a government advisor, presumably murdered by the Red Brigades for his work on labor reforms.

Overall, Italy has had a very persistent problem with domestic terrorism in the past half-century, and the problem continues to this day. Italy's problem with domestic terrorism is directly and indirectly linked with international hostilities and terrorism.

Resources:
Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1999 Europe Overview
http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/1999report/europe.html

Red Brigades: the next generation?
http://www.iht.com/articles/51953.html

Top Italian Gov't. Adviser Killed
http://www.sellarolodge.org/news/03-20-02.html

Red Brigades (BR) Brigate Rosse
http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=36

Red Brigades (BR) Attacks from 1988-2000
http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgattack.cfm?orgid=36

Assassination of Ministerial Adviser in Rome Claimed by Red Brigades
http://www.ict.org.il/spotlight/det.cfm?id=265

Italian Court Convicts Three for 1969 Milan Bombing
http://www.ict.org.il/

Brigate Rosse Red Brigades
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/br.htm

U.S. Department of State 1994 April: Patterns of Global Terrorism, 1993
http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/terror_93/euro.html#Italy


Terrorism in Singapore

By Jane S.

Terrorism is, according to dictionary.com: "The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons."

In Singapore there are not many acts of terrorism, especially domestic acts. This is because Singapore only became an independent country in the 1960's and since then has been developed very well, with guidance from the United States so terrorism was never really a problem or concern. Singapore does not promote terrorism of any kind; they are also in favor of America's "War against Terrorism." They do not house any known terrorists in Singapore so it would be difficult for terrorists of any kind to get into the country undetected. There have been few attacks and no major ones. For example, in April of 2000 there was a well-developed plan to bomb a Yishun MRT station, in Singapore. An Al-Qaeda leader had notes and videotape explaining the plan. This was discovered in the rubble of his house. Other than this example there have been no other major domestic plans or attacks in Singapore.

There have also been very view international terrorist attacks. The attacks that do happen only occur because some countries disagree with Singapore because they support the US. Some countries consider the United States "anti-Muslim". Singapore has a large Muslim population so other 3rd world countries believe that it is wrong for them to be friends with the US. Some countries' feelings about this issue are so strong that they chose to attack Singapore.

Terrorism in the United States has also affected Singapore significantly. For example after the attacks on the World Trade Centers Singapore's economy went down almost as much as the United States economy did. This happened because Singapore is a democratic business city; it has no natural resources, because of this it is forced to make it's money another way. Their main source of money is trade. In the year 2000 we traded second most with Singapore next to Malaysia. We trade 75,906,639 $ a year with Singapore. So when our economy went down, our trade decreased. This made Singapore's economy decrease. Singapore's economy is not the only thing that is affected by terrorism in the United States. Their international relations with other countries are also affected. Because Singapore supports the US some other third world countries become mad or disagree with them. This can sometimes cause a problem. Overall terrorism directed to the United States harms Singapore more than domestic and international terrorism within Singapore does.

Singapore does not promote terrorism of any kind. They support the United States in the War against Terrorism. In many ways Singapore try's to keep all terrorism out of their county. One way that it does this is by making everything equal. The same education is provided to everybody, and it is free. They do this to keep racial harmony. They also have the same housing situations for everybody. There are no slums, every town has the same percentage of different races and religions; they do this so that there is no racial segregation. Leaders of Singapore decided that if there were no problems it would be nearly impossible for they're to be extremist groups who will harm the country. Since the 1960's this method has worked very well. They have also come up with a "Total Defense" method. It consists of: Having a strong commitment to their country, socially working together as a common society, economically contributing to everything, preparing to handle emergencies, and a strong military defense.
Singapore has done a great job handling terrorism in many different senses. Singapore's social and economic policies have eliminated the causes of much local terrorism. Although terrorism is the United States affects them they have adapted to it. Overall they have managed the entire issue very well and are in a very good position.

Resources:

Singapore.http://www.un.org/terrorism/statements/singaporeE.html

EmergencyNet. http://www.emergency.com/2002/Singapore_terror02.htm

Singapore's Ministry of Information and the Arts. Singapore facts and Pictures 2001.

U.S. Department of State 1995 April: Patterns of Global Terrorism, 1994
http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/terror_94/euro.html#Italy

Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1997 Europe and Eurasia Overview
http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/terror_97/eurasia.html

The Red Brigades: Cooperation with the Palestinian Terrorist Organizations (1970 ­ 1990)
http://www.ict.org.il/articles/red_brigades-palestinians.htm

terrorism
http://encyclopedia.com/html/t/terroris.asp

Europe Overview Patterns of Global Terrorism - 2000
http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2000/2434.htm

Leftist group says it planted Venice bomb
http://origin.sundayobserver.lk/2001/08/12/wor05.html



Terrorism in Africa

By Lesley K.

Terrorism is a threat in Africa. It has caused many people to flee their homes or have to face the massacres that happen among them. Africa has had many ethnic wars. Ethnic wars include massacres, rapes, and torture. "Security dilemma" is used between states and problems between ethnic groups. If one ethnic group decides to use violence against another ethnic group, the ethnic group that has been threatened feels that it is a threat to them. An international terrorist campaign is when an ethnic group gets military support from a foreign country. The different groups in Africa use this when other ethnic groups threaten them. Furthermore, there is a fuel crisis that is going through thirty-six states; this, too, has caused the people to be upset and rebel.

In 2000, there were many terrorist attacks throughout Africa. Angola had many attacks because there was a civil wars between UNITA (the National Union for Independence of Angola) and the Angolan Government. FLEC (the Front for the Liberation of the Enclae of Cabina) took several foreign hostages in Cabina Province. UNITA rebels were suspected of ambushing a vehicle on January 25 near Soyo and killing a Portuguese citizen. In May, UNITA rebels killed one person and caused property damage when they attacked two World Food programs in North Angola. In August UNITA rebels were suspected of attacking two diamond minds in north Angola (this killed nine from South Africa and abducted seven from Angola). FLEC kidnapped three Portuguese construction workers and one from Angolan from the Cabinda Province. In Guinea, RUF (Revolutionary United Front) kidnapped two foreign Catholic priests on September 7. They also killed a Togolese United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees employee and kidnapped an Ivorian secretary on September 17. In Namibia, Angolan Government troops came in the borders of Namibia because that country invited them. There were many clashes in the border that killed nine people (seven of the nine were foreigners). In the Caprivi region, three French children were killed because armed men attacked their vehicle. The police blamed UNITA for it. Also, gunmen hurt a Scottish citizen, two French citizens, and two Danish workers. In January, Niger was forced to cancel the Niger stage of the Paris-Daker Road Rally because of a threat suspected by Algerian terrorists. In Sierra Leone, terrorist attacks kidnapped United Nations Assistance Mission peacekeepers, foreign journalists, and humanitarian workers. RUF killed five United Nations peacekeepers and kidnapped 500 hundred others. They also were suspected of shooting a United Nations helicopter that killed two foreign journalists. From June to August, there were four deaths of peacekeepers and they kidnapped 30 United Nations troops (RUF was suspected). On March 30, Somali gunmen opened fire on a United Nations aircraft that was leaving Kismaayo. After this, the United Nations suspended humanitarian operations temporarily in Kismaayo. South Africa has many terrorist attacks. In Cape Town, there were nine bombings, which caused 30 injuries. Five of the nine were car bombings were targeted at the authorities, public places, restaurants, and nightclubs. PAGAD (People Against Gangsterism And Drugs), a Muslim organization, was responsible for the bombings. In November, the police arrested some suspects that were involved with PAGAD and they found some pipe bombs. After they were arrested, there were no more bombings. In Uganda, the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the ADF (Allied Democratic Forces) had many terrorist attacks against foreign nations. On March 4, LRA was suspected of kidnapping two Italian missionaries. LRA killed an Italian priest when he was driving to his church in October. The government initiated to have no more bombings in the Kampala, the capital city, in 2000, because in 1997-1998, there were delay bombings everywhere.

In conclusion, terrorism has affected many countries, including the United States, Italy, and those in Africa. Africa has been affected greatly by all of kinds of terrorism. Groups such as UNITA, FLEC, RUF, and PLAGAD, etc., use terrorism to fight other groups for government or economic problems. These fights grow into wars, and wars cause people to flee from Africa or have to live with the consequences. These terrorist acts have resulted in killing foreigners and injuring innocent people.

Terrorism in Nigeria

By Jessica S

Nigeria has been known for many things, such as its talent in soccer. But another thing Nigeria is known for is its high rate of terrorism. Nigeria has had to endure many different terrorist movements, such as riots over elections and religious groups rebelling on each other. Furthermore, Nigeria just recently went through a civil war. This war taught Nigeria that ethnic conflicts were one of the most destructive forces in the life of any nation. But these lessons have apparently not taught the people of Nigeria that terrorism should stop.

Many terrorist problems are being caused by rage against the government. In the early 1800's a man named Usuman Dan Folio, a Fulani and pious Muslim, began a holy war to reform the practice of Islam in the north. Usuman conquered the Hausa city- states, which started the Muslim, and Hausa hate in Nigeria. Usuman established a state called Sokoto, Usuman's son, Muhammad Bello, controlled Sokoto until the British rule. Under Muhammad and Usuman Nigeria flourished. In 1807, Great Britain abandoned the slave trade, however the other countries in Africa didn't abolish it too later. In 1817, a long series of civil wars began in the Oyo Empire; these wars lasted until 1893 when Britain intervened. After this point Britain wanted to make slavery abolished, so Britain annexed Lagos in 1861. From then on Sir George Goldie started conquering different parts of Africa and mostly Nigeria. In 1906 Britain took control of Nigeria, which it divided into two protectorates. The two parts were Southern Protectorate and the Northern Protectorate. In 1914 the two protectorates were amalgamated and Nigeria was formed. In 1966 the first military involvement was acquired to Nigeria. The military became very ruling, the military started to control people's lives; it set off violent reactions all through the northern half. For the past 6 years two people have been in charge of Nigeria, until the second one was sentenced to death in court, by military powers. This was start to the first election in 15 years, because the other 9 years military was in rule. While at the same time 5 top officials of this government were also sentenced to death in military court for trying to topple the former General Abacha, a rising power. Many of the governmental problems go back to Nigerian's crumbling economy. For many years Nigeria has been going through fuel shortages, dry water taps, faulty telephone lines, and sever power shortages. This has made the people of Nigeria mad, because of their loss in economic relief. While at the same time transportation fares have gone over 200 percent. Many people blame the government for this because they say all the governmental costs were going towards soldiers and secret service. The soldiers were taking advantage of their uniforms, and power over civilians. All these problems are blamed on the government, which causes the governmental rebellion. General Sani Abacha has made the up rage much greater. Abacha was a brutal Nigerian dictator accused of numerous human rights violations. There were many murders at the former anti-Abacha rallies. A quote once said by The Front described the pressures of the problem of terrorism in Nigeria stated; "When the Nigerian's people strive to join the rest of the world in building genuine democracy, the military is imposing dictatorship and economic slavery on the people". Given the shortage of government jobs and the expanding numbers of qualified applicants there has been more ethnic competition. There has been religious hate built on governmental problems. But lately the violence against Abacha has become more of past hate then present because of his death at 54 years from a heart attack. Now the hate toward the government is based on the treatment of the civilian class in Nigeria. The soldiers and secret service are abusing their power and there is nothing the people of Nigeria can do, if any action was tried to be taken the person will be arrested. In court there most likely the person will either me sentenced life in prison or the death sentence.

Another cause of terrorism in Nigeria is between religious beliefs. In the late 1960's Nigerian went through a civil war. When the people of the north started to get frustrated when the southerners settled in the northerner land, the war ended but hate is still brewing between them. The Muslims mostly sided with the north and the Christians mostly sided with the south. Some of the groups that fought in Nigeria now are the Yoruba and Hausa. The Hausa men are mostly Arab men. Their goal is trying to rebel against the Yoruba men by going through the streets with sticks and bottles destroying the Yoruba's land, and hurting there familys. Many people are killed during these riots from either group. Lately the Nigerian police have been struggling too stop the clashes between these groups. While this idea was being under token, taking curfews were set for civilians, which effected there daily lives. Another religious battle is between the Muslims and the Christians. The police have taken extra measures to prevent attacks reprisal between Muslims and Christians in the city last year when hundreds of people died. There has been a lot of fighting between Muslims and Christians, this fighting has left more then 500 people dead and 50,000 people displaced. The Muslims mostly occupy northern Nigeria. Their goal is to expand their territory. The Muslims have an extremist group called MAD, which stands for Nigerian Movement of Advancement of Democracy. In early October four members of MAD hijacked a Nigerian Airways plane to Niamey. The hijackers wanted resignation of the interim the government. In the early 1900s the ethnic conflict was so suppressed and carefully controlled which meant any out break or seriously publicized discrimination on ethnic grounds was considered a matter of national security. In 2000, impoverished ethnic groups in the southern oil-producing region of Nigeria continued to kidnap local and foreign oil workers in an effort to acquire a greater share of Nigeria's oil wealth. Abduction in the oil region is common, and hostages are rarely harmed. But over 300 people, including 54 foreigners, were abducted between April and July. The most serious kidnapping incident occurred on 31 of July when armed youths attacked two oil-drilling rigs and took 165 hostages including seven US citizens and, five Britons. All hostages were realized four days later unhurt. These examples show just some examples of the tension in Nigeria over many different thoughts, and religious belief.

In conclusion Nigeria had gone through a lot to become a nation. The rising government, and the rebellion against it have caused terrorism. While at the same time some terrorism in Nigeria is caused by religious beliefs. Nigeria is divided by many ethnic groups which causes violence clash's against each other. Nigeria has just been through a civil war, which taught them about how terrible violence is but it has not overcome the problems of living together and excepting each other the terrorism in Nigeria is not a small thing that can just be cured, it will take time and help from other nations to fix there crumbling economy and military government, which is a major reason why there is still terrorism in Nigeria.

Resources:

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